Evolution of fish

Want to use this map on your web site? Copy and Paste the code below: Hot Springs Tiberias has been famed as a spa center since the Roman period, and its hot springs are as popular now as they were then. After you’ve finished having a soak, catch up on some history by visiting the fourth-century synagogue next door, with its well-preserved, richly-patterned mosaic floor. The mosaic betrays the influence of Hellenistic and Roman culture even on pious Jews during this period, with the central portion depicting the sun god Helios surrounded by the signs of the zodiac. The archaeological site of Bet Yerah “house of the moon,” also known as Khirbet Kerak is not mentioned in either Biblical or Egyptian records, but excavations here have uncovered evidence of a settlement dating from the Bronze Age right through to the period of Arab rule.

Mediterranean Sea

Evolution of fish The Devonian period is traditionally known as the “Age of Fish”, marking the diversification of numerous extinct and modern major fish groups. The early types resembled their cartilaginous ancestors in many features of their anatomy, including a shark-like tailfin, spiral gut, large pectoral fins stiffened in front by skeletal elements and a largely unossified axial skeleton. With the exception of a pair of spiracles , the gills did not open singly to the exterior as they do in sharks; rather, they were encased in a gill chamber stiffened by membrane bones and covered by a bony operculum , with a single opening to the exterior.

The cleithrum bone , forming the posterior margin of the gill chamber, also functioned as anchoring for the pectoral fins. The cartilaginous fishes do not have such an anchoring for the pectoral fins. This allowed for a movable joint at the base of the fins in the early bony fishes, and would later function in a weight bearing structure in tetrapods.

A church in northern Israel where Christians believed Jesus performed a miracle has reopened almost two years after an arson attack by Jewish extremists.

It has often been called the incubator of Western civilization. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara , occupies an area of approximately , square miles 2, , square km. To the northeast the Mediterranean is connected with the Black Sea through the Dardanelles with a sill depth of feet [70 metres] , the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Bosporus sill depth of about feet [90 metres]. To the southeast it is connected with the Red Sea by the Suez Canal.

Physiographic and geologic features Natural divisions A submarine ridge between the island of Sicily and the African coast with a sill depth of about 1, feet metres divides the Mediterranean Sea into western and eastern parts. The western part in turn is subdivided into three principal submarine basins. These two basins together constitute the western basin. The eastern Mediterranean is subdivided into two major basins. The Ionian Basin, in the area known as the Ionian Sea , lies to the south of Italy and Greece , where the deepest sounding in the Mediterranean, about 16, feet 4, metres , has been recorded.

A submarine ridge between the western end of Crete and Cyrenaica Libya separates the Ionian Basin from the Levantine Basin to the south of Anatolia Turkey ; and the island of Crete separates the Levantine Basin from the Aegean Sea , which comprises that part of the Mediterranean Sea north of Crete and bounded on the west and north by the coast of Greece and on the east by the coast of Turkey.

The Aegean Sea contains the numerous islands of the Grecian archipelago. The Adriatic Sea , northwest of the main body of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, is bounded by Italy to the west and north and by Slovenia , Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina , Montenegro , and Albania to the east. Geology Until the s the Mediterranean was thought to be the main existing remnant of the Tethys Sea , which formerly girdled the Eastern Hemisphere.

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But I never quite got around to making it a reality. Then years later, while dating a delightful young lady whose family hailed from Naples, I finally attended one such event and was irrevocably smitten with both the girl and the feast. The origins of the tradition are shrouded in the mists of Southern Italian time, though all versions have one theme in common: As required on Good Friday and indeed on all Fridays when I was child in an Irish Catholic household , on Christmas Eve as well one would abstain from consuming meat to purify oneself.

The exact contours of the meal vary from region to region and household to household.

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The first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood as some sea squirts do today , although this path cannot be proven. Vertebrates , among them the first fishes , originated about million years ago during the Cambrian explosion , which saw the rise in organism diversity. Pikaia had a primitive notochord , a structure that could have developed into a vertebral column later.

Unlike the other fauna that dominated the Cambrian, these groups had the basic vertebrate body plan: The first jawed vertebrates appeared in the late Ordovician and became common in the Devonian , often known as the “Age of Fishes”. The Devonian also saw the rise of the first labyrinthodonts , which was a transitional between fishes and amphibians. The colonisation of new niches resulted in diversification of body plans and sometimes an increase in size.

The Devonian Period to Ma brought in such giants as the placoderm Dunkleosteus , which could grow up to seven meters long, and early air-breathing fish that could remain on land for extended periods. Among this latter group were ancestral amphibians. The reptiles appeared from labyrinthodonts in the subsequent Carboniferous period.

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Introduction This family contains by far the most species in the Iranian freshwater ichthyofauna and is divided into two files Abramis to Cyprinus here , and Garra to Vimba see both in Contents. The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates the Gobiidae may be the first. The family is found in North America, Eurasia and Africa.

Other common names in English for species include barbels, breams, roaches, snow trouts, bitterlings, shiners, daces, chubs, barbs, “sharks”, among many others. There are about genera and over species Nelson, ; Eschmeyer and Fong, , about 8. In Iran, the family is represented by about?

Mediterranean Sea: Survey of the Mediterranean Sea, the intercontinental sea that separates Europe from Africa. Called the incubator of Western civilization, it runs west to east from the Strait of Gibraltar between Spain and Morocco to the coast of Turkey and north .

The church was reopened almost two years after an arson attack by Jewish extremists. The Church of the Multiplication of the Loaves and Fish , which is located in Tabgha on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, was burned in a fire in June Many Christians believe that the Roman Catholic church is the site of the feeding of the 5, , where Jesus multiplied loaves of bread and fish to feed a large crowd.

The church was built in the s but contains mosaic floors dating from the fifth century. The church held an interfaith ceremony to reopen the church on Sunday. The service was attended by Israeli President Reuven Rivlin, who gave a speech defending religious freedom. The fire, which caused significant damage to several other rooms at the church, did not damage the mosaic floors.

Three Jewish extremists have been indicted for the crime but are yet to be sentences. Israel has a Christian minority that makes up around 2 percent of the total population, according to the CIA World Factbook , and the country is home to many sites of Christian pilgrimage.

‘Loaves and Fishes’ Church in Israel Reopens Almost Two Years After Arson Attack

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Sardine run Forage fish often make great migrations between their spawning, feeding and nursery grounds. Schools of a particular stock usually travel in a triangle between these grounds. For example, one stock of herrings have their spawning ground in southern Norway , their feeding ground in Iceland , and their nursery ground in northern Norway. Wide triangular journeys such as these may be important because forage fish, when feeding, cannot distinguish their own offspring.

Capelin are a forage fish of the smelt family found in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. In summer, they graze on dense swarms of plankton at the edge of the ice shelf. Larger capelin also eat krill and other crustaceans.

Mediterranean Sea

Some sections of this work are incomplete but have been posted as is. They will be updated and queries resolved as time permits. Apart from files not yet complete, distribution maps, some figures and habitat photographs are the main items to be added.

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Sardine run Forage fish often make great migrations between their spawning, feeding and nursery grounds. Schools of a particular stock usually travel in a triangle between these grounds. For example, one stock of herrings have their spawning ground in southern Norway , their feeding ground in Iceland , and their nursery ground in northern Norway. Wide triangular journeys such as these may be important because forage fish, when feeding, cannot distinguish their own offspring.

Capelin are a forage fish of the smelt family found in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. In summer, they graze on dense swarms of plankton at the edge of the ice shelf. Larger capelin also eat krill and other crustaceans. The capelin move inshore in large schools to spawn and migrate in spring and summer to feed in plankton rich areas between Iceland , Greenland , and Jan Mayen.

The migration is affected by ocean currents.

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Hundreds of sharks and other fish discovered tangled in ‘ghost net’ drifting through Caribbean Sea ‘I jumped in the water first and was shocked at what I saw.

Guestbook Lake Baikal is a surprising and unique natural laboratory where one can study the life in abyssal fresh waters. New varieties and species of organisms are continuously developing in the lake. Throughout its history both Baikal itself and the organisms inhabiting its world have undergone a complicated evolution. Because of this, the lake is inhabited both by very ancient varieties of organisms that originated in small lake pre-dating Baikal and younger ones that originated in Baikal itself.

There are more than species of protozoans and about the same number of the most interesting amphipod crustaceans, various flat and round worms, lower crustaceans, insects, mollusks, fish, and the nerpa seal. Baikal nerpas streaming RealVideo Baikal has more than 1, species of aquatic flora! Besides the algae, about 20 species of flowering plants have been found here. The lake’s bays and silty lagoons, its sheltered coves, and the river deltas harbour such plants as rhdest, thin reed, water buckwheat, cattail, hornwort, and sedge.

Near the steep shores of Baikal, the coastal areas of the deep-water slope are devoid of flowering plants. Yet there are algae living there. If you look carefully at the stones along the surf line in July, August and September, you can see a thick green moss-like plant – the ulokrix, on them. A little bit deeper the stones are covered with yellowish fibers of algae called the didimosphenia, and still deeper metres you’ll see small bushes of the Baikal draparnaldias that once formed dark-green thickets.

Other algae is visible at this depth as well.

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